Nowadays, much of the gear that can be bought in the marketplace may be damaged by polarity because of poor design techniques.
There is an area in design where manufacturers are often at fault. It’s an ongoing trend in their design. It seems like 12-volt and 24-volt electronic equipment are more prone to damages. It is a bit ironic because most equipment is designed with some form of reverse polarity protection. This is usually in a diode and fuse form.
This is the theory: if reverse polarity occurs, the designed diode will then conduct and short the power supply in order to ground and trigger the fuse to blow up. This protects your equipment. This should work well if the equipment has been designed properly.
Unfortunately, there is a disturbing amount of 12-volt and 24-volt electronic equipment with this design flaw. They make the copper traces on the printed circuit board extremely small. Unfortunately, this then pulls a lot of current through the diode in order to pop the fuse which then vaporizes the printed circuit board power trace. Once this happens, you will then need to replace the whole board or have it repaired. In either case, this will require expensive repair.
Yes, it can, but it can happen only in two ways. First, if you are filling it up for the first time. If you use an old type of charger, you can short the terminals. You could be hooking up the charger backward and end up reverse charging your battery. You won’t see a spark because the battery actually gains voltage while you charge it. The short won’t be enough to create a spark
You can also reverse the polarity of a battery after you’ve activated it. This is rare, but it is possible. In order for this to happen, you will need to perform a sequence of errors that would eventually trigger the reverse polarity.
The only way to discharge the battery completely is by failing to notice a dead short that will eventually dissipate the battery charge. After some time, the battery will be discharged entirely. But in order to have a negative charge, you will need to hook it up backward and charge it again. So, the only way for a positive-charged battery to reverse itself is to discharge completely, and then reversed charged.
Yes, it can happen. If the battery cells are out of balance, some cells will discharge before the others. As it continues to discharge, they will start to reverse polarity. Now, if there is an external factor that keeps the current from flowing, like for instance, when the batteries are in a series, and then one goes bad, the battery will start reversing polarity on some or all of its cells. It doesn’t really get that bad in an installation if there are no external errors or mistakes that lead to the reverse charge.
To really keep your battery in tip top condition - you will need a industrial grade professional battery maintainer such as this one from NOCO.
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